Lebaran Progresif

MENDENGAR seorang teman berkata tak harus mudik pas Idulfitri ini karena jauh hari sebelumnya sudah mudik, rasanya kok iri juga ya. Kenapa orang Indonesia banyak yang terjebak pada definisi mudik di momen Lebaran saja?

Rasanya terkungkung sekali oleh tradisi yang dibuat sendiri, setahun sekali pas Idulfitri mesti balik ke kampung halaman. Padahal ada 300 hari lain yang bisa dipilih lho. Itu jumlah yang banyak sekali. Tapi kenapa harus itu? Kenapa harus saat itu?

Kalau saya nanti menjadi tetua atau patriark nanti, saya pastikan tidak ada yang merasa terikat dengan tradisi konyol ini.

Mau mudik atau tidak saat Idulfitri tidak masalah. Asal jangan merasa terpaksa atau tersiksa.

Seakan dengan bermacet-macetan dosa otomatis tertebus. Ya nggak juga sih.

Bayangkan jika penduduk terus bertambah dan tradisi ini terus seketat sekarang, bahwa mudik itu wajib. Nggak bisa ditinggalkan. Dan yang tidak mudik ya durhaka atau memutus silaturahmi. Chill!

Seberapa banyak jalan tol dibangun, bus diproduksi, kereta dirakit, bandara dibuat, kapal feri diapungkan, rasanya kok tidak bakal bisa mengimbangi kenaikan arus mudik per tahun.

Semua demi keafdolan sebuah tradisi turun temurun.

Tradisi yang sebenarnya bisa direvisi. Jika kita mau mengubah pola pikir. (*/)

‘Klitih’, ‘Perang Sarung’, ‘Tawuran’, ‘Geng Motor’: The Violence Culture Gets Explained

Yogyakarta culture looks so lofty and amazing and intricate but we need to see the other side of coin. (Wikimedia Commons)

KLITIH used to mean something good, harmless. “Klitah klitih” means “to move to and fro looking for something, mostly for hangout spots”. But now it refers to a criminal act towards teenagers in Yogyakarta in early hours in the morning.

For years it’s been all rage but nothing substantial was done to combat the horrible social trend. From January to April 2022, there have been 12 cases of klitih. There have been 7 casualties since 2016. It doesn’t seem many but if it’s about life, losing one is too many. Especially these youngsters.

This is quite an irony because Yogyakarta, the epicentrum of klitih, is known for being a city of students, a home to several famous universities. How can a place be a civilized, erudite, educated yet violent at the same time? This is a big question to answer.

What makes klitih different from tawuran is it is a fight organized and carefully planned between two gangs from two schools or areas. So they already know their targets.

But klitih practitioners and victims are not familiar with each other. Victims are chosen randomly on street. They have no specific target. Anyone they meet on street could be victims. Even an adult can be an easy prey of these teenagers.

Perang Sarung is now also on the rise in Yogyakarta. Sarung is a sarong, a piece of cloth or fabric to cover the lower body of male muslims while praying. But here, teenagers fill their sarongs with sharp objects to hurt or kill others.

Seniority culture in schools in Yogyakarta has been said to be the cause of the street violence tradition. Freshmen/ juniors are recruited by seniors of a school to attack students of other schools that have had a long history of rivalry. Indoctrination is rampant under ground, unbeknownst to teachers, principals, and authorities, even their own parents. Or perhaps parents or guardians of these kids don’t even care at all.

Meanwhile, geng motor is defined as a gang consisting of youngsters that like to showcase their motorbikes on public streets. In Yogyakarta, this is not as rampant as klitih.

The regent of Sleman has recently signed a rule of curfew for people, prohibiting everyone especially teenagers getting out of their home from 10 pm to 4 am.

Is this enough?

Maybe not. We have not addressed the root of the problem at all.

Such rule has existed before but no substantial changes are seen. (*/)

“Life’s Punchline”: Tragikomedi Rekomendasi

MENURUT tradisi Yunani Kuno, ada tiga jenis pertunjukan: komedi, tragedi, dan tragikomedi. Yang terakhir ini lebih cocok untuk melabeli Life’s Punchline.

Tidak ada yang spektakuler di sini sebenarnya. Konfliknya datar dan biasa saja. Tidak ada yang berdarah-darah, berpeluh atau menangis sampai parau. Konflik sehari-hari sekali dan kita bisa mengalaminya juga. Tidak ada elemen lebay atau hiperbola menurut saya.

Di sini kita bisa belajar bahwa kehidupan satu orang manusia ternyata berkelindan dengan rumitnya dengan kehidupan manusia lain. Jadi tak berlebihan sih kalau dikatakan dalam agama, saat seseorang membunuh manusia lain, ia sama saja membunuh seluruh umat manusia. Karena manusia bukan makhluk soliter. Kita berteman, berkeluarga, beranak pinak dan bekerja dengan manusia lain. Dan dari sana hubungan-hubungan muncul dan terbina.

Dan salah satu pelajaran yang penting dari sini juga adalah bahwa perpisahan bisa kok dirayakan. Karena selama ini kita diajari bahwa perpisahan selalu menyedihkan. Identik dengan air mata, saputangan, kata-kata selamat tinggal.

Tapi pada hakikatnya perpisahan adalah sebuah babak baru dalam hidup. Bukan akhir yang mentok seperti gang buntu yang membuat kita terjebak tak bisa ke mana-mana lalu kita benar-benar mati membusuk dengan menyedihkan di situ. Karena ternyata kehidupan terus berputar walaupun satu episode sudah ditutup. Ada kelopak bunga yang mekar setelah bunga lama berguguran.

Perpisahan juga membuat momen-momen itu menjadi lebih berharga dan bisa diapresiasi lebih tinggi di masa datang. Jika perpisahan tidak ada, mungkin saja kita mengabaikan momen-momen itu. Padahal di sinilah hidup menjadi lebih bernilai dan bermakna.

Hal lain yang saya dapatkan dari sini adalah bahwa keberadaan kita di muka bumi ini setidaknya memiliki harga dan makna bagi manusia lain. Meski itu cuma satu manusia. Jika kita sudah bisa membuat hidup satu manusia terasa lebih baik dan dia bisa bertahan melalui fase terberat dalam hidupnya dengan kehadiran kita dalam kehidupannya, ternyata itu sudah cukup untuk membuat hidup bermakna. Tak perlu muluk-muluk harus mencapai ini itu. (*/)

Hunian Idaman di Pedalaman Hutan

Scholar’s Library, New York, USA. Designed by Gluck+ (Photo: @steffan on Instagram)

MELIHAT foto-foto hasil rancangan firma arsitektur Amerika GLUCK+ di atas, rasanya ingin pindah ke dalamnya. Tak peduli belum ada ATM BCA di sekitarnya, belum ada AlfaMart atau Indomaret, belum ada sambungan listrik (karena bisa pakai panel surya), belum ada wifi pun tak masalah.

Asal ada koleksi buku kesukaan, pepohonan, dan ruangan yang bersih, rapi untuk berteduh dan membaca dan membaringkan badan dan buang hajat tentunya.

Senang rasanya hidup di antara rumah yang desainnya rapi dan tak banyak pernak-pernik yang memusingkan kepala dan netra, menyisakan banyak ruang sehingga pikiran jadi lega, tak disesaki dengan barang-barang yang sebenarnya tak diperlukan.

Firma arsitektur ini konon dinamai berdasarkan nama Peter Gluck dan Mitra Arsitekturnya. Tanda plus sendiri menandakan mereka bersikap inklusif. Mereka berupaya mengakomodasi semua selera dan kebutuhan berbeda orang-orang yang majemuk.

Gluck masih menjadi petinggi di firma ini. Ia lulusan Yale University dan memiliki gelar Master Arsitektur dari Yale School of Art and Architecture di tahun 1965. Ia pernah ke Tokyo dan merancang proyek besat untuk konstruksi Jepang sehingga tak diragukan ia terpengaruh oleh estetika tradisional Jepang tapi juga memiliki ciri modern yang efisien dalam desainnya. (*/)

Hari Hak Cipta dan Buku Sedunia dan Fenomena Berbagi File Digital

John Grisham dibuat kesal dengan pembajak ebook. (Foto: Wikimedia Commons)

SAYA baru tahu hari ini itu diperingati sebagai “World Book and Copyright Day“. Entah siapa yang mencanangkan tapi pastinya bukan orang Indonesia.

Ya karena Indonesia bukan negara yang patut dicontoh soal penegakan hukum kekayaan intelektual dan penerbitan pastinya. Di sini para penulis masih melarat rat rat. Kecuali yang sudah punya nama besar dan bisa mendiversifikasi pemasukan dengan mendapatkan kontrak film, iklan, merchandise dan sebagainya. Tapi buat yang masih emerging dan kurang terkenal, please jangan berharap banyak.

Tapi jangankan di Indonesia tempat pembajakan buku terjadi secara blak-blakan di marketplace semacam Shopee dan Tokopedia, di Amerika sana saja masih keluar keluhan dari para penulis buku lho.

Penulis novel thriller hukum John Grisham bahkan menulis sebuah artikel yang mencurahkan kekesalannya soal budaya pembajakan buku di dunia maya yang seakan tidak bisa dihentikan (sumber: thehill.com). Sekelas Grisham saja yang seharusnya sudah bisa dikatakan makmur dan tak perlu memusingkan soal pendapatan masih membahas soal ini lho. Gila nggak sih?

Di artikelnya, Grisham merasa tak berdaya meski dia sendiri seorang pengacara juga kalau dihadapkan dengan pembajakan bukunya yang terjadi secara masif di internet. Ia mengeluhkan susahnya menuntut Kiss Library, sebuah perpustakaan digital yang berbasis di Ukraina yang menjadi jejaring pembajakan e-book yang ia estimasi sudah merugikan industri penerbitan AS sebanyak ratusan ribu dollar.

Perpustakaan digital ini susah dibasmi karena domainnya banyak sekali. Dari kisslibrary.net, kissly.net, thekissly.net, libly.net, cheap-library.com, dan masih banyak lagi. Jadi diblokir satu domain bisa pindah dan menjelma menjadi domain lain. Masih ada juga Z-Library dan LibGen yang sama saja menyediakan unduhan gratis e-book banyak jenis. Pokoknya mirip permainan Tom-Jerry. Capek.

Grisham menjelaskan bahwa meski sudah memiliki pasukan penuntut hukum yang digawangi Amazon dan Penguin Random House, dua korporasi raksasa dalam dunia penerbitan, mereka masih kewalahan untuk menyeret para pelaku dan mendapatkan ganjaran yang setimpal atas kerugian yang diderita. Biaya meluncurkan tuntutan hukum ini saja sudah selangit.

Mereka menemukan 2 nama besar yang bisa dikatakan sebagai dalang di balik ini semua: Rodion Vynnychenko and Artem Besshapochny. Mereka warga Ukraina, negara yang sekarang sedang dibombardir Putin.

Singkat cerita, mereka kemudian terlacak pemerintah setempat dan dipanggil untuk pemeriksaan tapi tak mau muncul ke pengadilan. Tentu saja. Masak maling mengaku.

Grisham kesal karena dengan sistem yang ada sekarang ini, biaya untuk menuntut pihak-pihak pembajak buku tak sebanding dengan kerugian. Dengan kata lain, biayanya begitu tinggi sehingga para penulis buku harus pasrah menjadi korban terus-menerus. Ini seperti menjadi korban pencurian dan pihak berwajib diam saja. Begitu korban melapor, malah ditarik biaya oleh pihak berwajib. Mirip situasi penegakan hukum di negara kita. Haha. Makanya pada malas melapor dan menuntut pelaku kejahatan. Diam saja dan bisanya cuma mendendam dan berkata-kata pedas.

Perkumpulan penulis di AS The Authors Guild dikatakan terus melobi Kongres AS agar masalah ini segera diatasi. Mereka juga mendesak pemerintah AS agar mengubah hukum supaya menekan mesin pencari untuk memblokir situs-situs pembajakan buku. Sehingga kalau ada yang mencari link Kiss Library, mereka tak bakal bisa menemukannya dengan mudah.

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Lalu mengapa sih fenomena pembajakan buku masih terus marak terjadi?

Mungkin kita bisa menilik dari sisi psikologisnya nih.

Sebuah penelitian oleh Joe Cox dari University of Portsmouth Business School menguak bahwa fenomena penyebaran file digital termasuk e-book ini didasari oleh sebuah mentalitas “Robin Hood”.

Berdasarkan data survei nasional Finlandia yang mencatat kebiasaan berbagi file, status sosial ekonomi dan sikap mengenai penyebaran file secara legal dan ilegal pada 6103 responden dari berbagai kelas ekonomi, ditemukan bahwa ada pandangan bahwa para penyebar file secara ilegal menganggap dirinya sebagai Robin Hood bagi orang lain. Mereka para dermawan yang merampok dari orang kaya yang menindas.

Dalam perspektif Cox, ada dua jenis penyebar file ilegal ini: leechers dan seeders. Leechers adalah para lintah yang menyedot file. Mereka mengunduh file dari pihak lain tapi tidak secara eksplisit menyediakan konten bagi orang lain. Seeders adalah mereka yang mendapatkan file untuk disebarkan ke leechers.

Seeders ini kalau dipikir-pikir tak menikmati kekayaan atau keuntungan dari aktivitas ilegal mereka tapi mereka terus melakukannya karena merasa terdorong oleh semangat solidaritas ala komunitas dan ingin mendapatkan pengakuan di antara yang lain. Mereka merasa ‘di atas angin’ karena sanggup mengakali sistem yang ada. (*/)

(Un)Happy Earth Day!

PERINGATAN hari bumi tahun ini dalam suasana bulan Ramadan 2022.

Apa yang sudah berubah dalam beberapa tahun ini terkait dalam pelestarian lingkungan hidup di negara kita?

Rasanya kok tidak banyak ya. Masih jalan di tempat. Entahlah dengan yang Anda rasakan tapi saya sih begitu.

Bangsa kita sedang pusing dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang dirongrong oleh pandemi. Para petinggi cari berbagai siasat agar pendapatan negara kembali naik dan utang-utang bisa dilunasi. Sebagian pajak dinaikkan, sejumlah jenis bahan bakar dinaikkan harganya, sampai pergolakan sosial politik terus berekskalasi. Seperti bisul yang mungkin akan sebentar lagi pecah dan keluar nanah.

Di bidang lingkungan, mari kita lihat kepemimpinannya. Di tangan menteri perempuan, ternyata kok nggak ada perbaikan signifikan dalam menangani lingkungan. Ekspektasinya ibu-ibu bisa merawat lingkungan dengan semangat keibuan, eh ternyata malah lain kenyataan.

Ibu Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dikabarkan kena semprot warganet tahun lalu (sumber) karena mengeluarkan pernyataan di Twitter bahwa deforestasi tak boleh dihentikan atas nama emisi karbon.

Loh loh? Gimana???

Menghentikan pembangunan atas nama zero deforestation sama dengan melawan mandat UUD 1945 untuk values and goals establishment, membangun sasaran nasional untuk kesejahteraan rakyat secara sosial dan ekonomi- Siti Nurbaya

Sungguh mengecewakan. Bukannya menghentikan atau setidaknya memperlambat laju deforestasi tapi malah nge-gas! Demi rakyat katanya. Tapi banjir bandang dan longsor di mana-mana kalau musim penghujan. Yang menikmati untung besar ya cuma lingkaran oligark. Akar rumput kalau terciprat untung juga paling seujung jari.

Tahun ini juga dikabarkan wilayah Sumatera Barat mengalami darurat deforestasi yang hebat (sumber). Demi ekonomi yang digenjot perkebunan dan alih fungsi lahan, hutan primer seluas setengah juta hektar lenyap.

Lip service dalam pengelolaan lingkungan masih terjadi secara merajalela. Pemerintah sih memang sudah menandatangni COP Glasgow tapi biasalah, orang Indonesia beda antara bibir dan perbuatan.

Menurut Walhi, RI berkomitmen menurunkan emisi gas rumah kaca 29% di tahun 2030 tapi sepertinya itu mustahil karena justru UU Cipta Kerja melawan komitmen itu. Entah argumen apa yang nanti pemerintah bakal berikan kalau ditanya soal komitmen ini.

Bahkan yang lebih mengenaskan ialah penggunaan batubara yang masih akan terus berlanjut sampai 2050. Menurut Walhi ini terlalu lama dan bisa membuat kondisi bumi makin kritis.

Tapi nggak masalah lah ya. Karena para pembuat kebijakan sekarang pada tahun 2050 pasti sudah tidak ada di muka bumi ini jadi biarlah itu ditanggung anak cucu nanti.

Sementara itu, pencemaran sampah plastik terjadi terus-menerus. Penanganan sampah di berbagai daerah di Indonesia masih sangat tertinggal. Sampah plastik membanjiri laut, danau, saluran air, masuk ke makanan dan minuman. Sangat memprihatinkan. Tapi teruskan saja sampai benar-benar ada bencana lingkungan yang berskala besar karena CUMA dengan begitu barulah kita tergerak untuk bersatu padu. Pemerintah akan lebih memberikan prioritas, masyarakat juga akan lebih mendengarkan. Tapi masalahnya kapan?

Apatisme memang berbahaya dalam penanganan lingkungan hidup dan pelestarian bumi. Karena kita harus tetap optimis. Tapi optimis sendiri tanpa dibarengi kepedulian dari orang lain juga melelahkan.

God, please save us from ourselves and our ignorance. (*/)

Diary Keith Haring: Refleksi, Persepsi, dan Evaluasi Diri

Keith Haring, salah satu figur seniman terkemuka abad 20. (Foto: Wikimedia Commons)

LAHIR 1958 di Pennsylvania, Keith Haring dikenal sebagai seniman penggambar grafiti kapur di banyak stasiun kereta bawah tanah (subway). Dari kecil, Haring sudah suka dengan kartun seperti karya Dr Seuss dan Walt Disney.

Tahun 1978 dia pindah ke New York dan antara tahun 1980-1985 dia produktif menghasilkan berbagai karya seni yang dibuat dalam beragam medium dari video sampai kolase tapi gambar tetap jadi medium favoritnya. Buktinya ia menghasilkan ratusan karya gambar di stasiun bawah tanah sepanjang periode ini sampai mendapat pengakuan publik bahwa karyanya patut diapresiasi sebagai karya seni yang serius.

Tahun 1986 ia membuka gerai merchandise khusus dengan cetakan karyanya sendiri. Laris manis karena memang reputasinya sudah mendunia.

Hingga tahun 1989, ia terlibat dalam sejumlah proyek amal dan sosial yang diperuntukkan bagi rumah sakit, panti asuhan, dan sebagainya.

Gelombang pandemi AIDS di Amerika memakan banyak korban. Salah satunya Haring, yang menghembuskan napas terakhir akibat komplikasi yang dipicu HIV dua hari setelah hari Valentine tahun 1990.

Sebagai seniman muda, Haring masih menyempatkan menulis jurnal harian yang isinya memang ia tujukan untuk dibaca bukan cuma dirinya tapi juga orang lain.

Isi jurnal Haring bukan soal masalah hidupnya atau hal-hal pribadi semata-mata tapi juga sebuah kumpulan kaya antara refleksi, persepsi dan evaluasi diri, dan pertumbuhannya sebagai seorang pribadi dan seniman dengan pemikiran kreatif yang mandiri. 

Diary Haring berbeda dari diary temannya yang juga seniman tersohor di era yang sama, Andy Warhol. Sementara diary Warhol penuh dengan catatan observatif terhadap tingkah laku selebritas yang ditemuinya dan catatan pengeluaran taksi dan  restoran yang nggak begitu penting, diary Haring lebih banyak memuat pelajaran dan hikmah yang menarik untuk para pembaca. Di sini banyak kalimat-kalimat bijak yang membuat kita merenung nggak cuma soal seni tapi juga manusia dan hidup secara umum.

Haring memandang Warhol sebagai panutan. Yang nggak cuma bisa kerja sendiri tapi juga seniman yang ‘publik’ serta holistik. Komplit, kata lainnya. Haring menulis bahwa tanpa Warhol sebagai pionir di depannya, kesuksesan komersial dan artistik Haring nggak bakal tercapai.

Haring secara rutin mengisi diarynya bahkan di tengah kesibukannya tur ke berbagai negara di dunia. Entri-entri diarynya dibubuhi dengan nama-nama lokasi dari Nagoya di Jepang, Belgia dan berbagai bandara. Inilah caranya berkomunikasi dengan dirinya sendiri dan juga memenuhi ambisinya sebagai seorang seniman yang produktif, lebih banyak berkarya dan lebih sedikit ngobrol.

Dalam pembuka buku ini, Robert Farris Thompson (akademisi Yale yang mempelajari sejarah seni di kawasan Atlantik-Afrika) menjelaskan bagian awal diary yang menyatakan keinginan Haring untuk menjalani kehidupannya sebagai manusia dan seniman dengan mandiri, memakai cara-caranya sendiri dan menggunakan pengaruh yang ia dapat dari seniman-seniman lain sebagai pijakan awal saja. 

Isi diary Haring sangat memperkaya batin. (Foto: Sothebys.com)

Trenyuhnya, dalam entri diarynya tanggal 10 Mei 1977 ia menuliskan lirik sendu tentang keinginan untuk berbaring di tepi sungai demi bisa mendengarkan nyanyian sungai yang menggetarkan jiwa dari konser “Grateful Dead”.

Tak disangka bahwa 12 tahun kemudian, di tengah bulan September 1989 Haring menuliskan entri terakhir diarynya saat ia divonis terkena HIV. Ia tak tahu berapa lama sisa hidupnya (dan ternyata cuma 5 bulan) dan saking syoknya ia menangis di sepanjang Houston Street, Manhattan, sampai ia tiba di East River. Di situ lirik kesukaannya itu menjadi nyata. Ia bisa menangis sepuasnya di tepi sebuah sungai. Setelah menangis sampai air matanya kering, Haring menguatkan diri untuk menjalani sisa hidupnya semaksimal mungkin. 

Dari diarynya, kita tahu bahwa kekuatan Haring sebagai seniman salah satunya terbangun karena seleranya yang “kuat dan nyata”. Ia membuka diri pada seniman-seniman hebat di luar dunia seni rupa yang ditekuninya. Ia membaca tulisan dan puisi-puisi John Keats yang sebagian ia tulis di diarynya juga. Ia sepakat dengan Keats bahwa kehebatan seni adalah intensitas dan kemampuannya untuk membuat semua unsur yang kurang enak lenyap. Yang tersisa hanyalah Keindahan dan Kebenaran. Inilah yang membuat Haring bisa mengekstrak semua emosi dan pengalamannya menjadi gambar-gambar sosok humanoid dalam karya-karyanya yang meski tidak memberikan detail tentang ekspresi wajah atau ciri fisik lainnya tapi kita masih bisa menangkap emosi yang intens di baliknya. Haring dianggap bisa menciptakan ikon-ikon budaya massal yang bisa dipahami semua orang. Inilah kenapa karya-karyanya bisa mendunia.

Dalam karyanya yang menunjukkan seekor anjing yang menyalak pada layar sebuah TV yang menyiarkan berita ledakan nuklir, Haring menunjukkan kecemasan dalam dirinya atas kemungkinan meledaknya perang nuklir di akhir era Perang Dingin. Sebuah kecemasan yang masih relevan untuk kita yang hidup di zaman sekarang, saat Barat (NATO) terus saja bergulat dengan Rusia, China tak berhenti juga berebut hegemoni dengan Amerika. It’s just the same world Haring and all of us live in.(*/) 

Voiceless and Faceless Vlogging for Introverts

Having found Sorekara Melancholy on YouTube perhaps around a year ago, I revisited the channel this morning and felt surprised to know a rise in the number of subscribers.

Back then it only garnered thousands of subscribers. I wasn’t even sure if the channel would get more exponentially.

First of all, it isn’t the regular vlogs we can find on YouTube.

You cannot find the channel owner’s face. You can’t even hear his voice. So it’s safe to say he is an introverted man. Yes the only fact of his life we all know is that he is a Japanese man in his thirties, living all alone at an apartment. He cooked himself, water his plants in the morning, works at home, work out, reads books, etc.

It looks so lonely, less exciting to some extroverts, but also soothing, peaceful and desirable to introverts.

It’s good to know that introverts can express themselves with their audiovisual content without making them feel uneasy.

Though it looks amazing to start a voiceless and faceless vlog channel but I don’t think it’s for everyone because it takes a sense of art and tech to create this series of videos.

With my less than impressive digital editing skills, I think what is possible for me is to explore creative writing to express myself instead of exploring with aesthetic videos like his.

Muslim di Rusia: Umat Tak Dikenal

Dari sejarah, Rusia lebih dekat dengan Kristen Ortodoks bahkan saat mereka masih berbentuk Uni Soviet. Tapi sejak lama agama Islam juga sudah hadir di sana.

Citra Muslim Rusia lekat dengan Chechnya. Dan kita tahu riwayat pemberontak Muslim  Chechnya di wilayah pegunungan Kaukasus. Mereka adalah suku pemeluk Islam dan sempat terlibat perseteruan yang mirip penyakit laten. Kadang hilang, kadang kambuh. Tidak sepenuhnya sembuh dan masih ada di dalam tubuh.

Posisi umat Muslim di Rusia memang bukan mayoritas sehingga lebih rawan terhadap penindasan Negara. Kebijakan-kebijakan Persatuan Ulama Islam di Rusia dan pemerintahan Rusia dianggap mengancam perdamaian kaum muslim baik Chechnya dan non-Chechnya juga di negara itu.

Jumlah pemeluk Islam di Rusia dikatakan mencapai sekitar 17 juta jiwa saja menurut Ravil Bukharev dalam buku Islam in Russia: The Four Season terbitan tahun 2000 ini. Sangat kecil, mengingat populasi Rusia saja sekarang 144 juta jiwa. Jadi ada kemungkinan jumlahnya sudah tumbuh secara eksponensial juga.

Mereka ini tersebar di berbagai bagian Rusia, tidak cuma di Chechnya dan Daghestan yang dianggap ‘sarang’ muslim. 

Beberapa karya tulis dan buku mengenai perkembangan umat muslim di Rusia pernah diterbitkan tapi kebanyakan sayangnya berbalut nuansa politis. Bukan objektif akademis yang bisa memberikan fakta bagi para pembaca.

Bukharev menyebutkan bahwa umat muslim kerap diabaikan dalam pembahasan Rusia. Sampai ia menyebutnya sebagai “umat yang tak diketahui” padahal umat muslim punya sejarah panjang di negara itu. Lebih dari 1000 tahun bahkan jika dilacak dalam catatan sejarah. Dan umat muslim juga bukan warga negara Rusia yang pasif dan reklusif (mengasingkan diri). Mereka terlibat aktif dalam perjalanan politik dan sejarah pan-Rusia (Rusia secara umum dan menyeluruh).

Muslim-muslim Rusia memiliki akar sejarah yang panjang di wilayah Republik Tatarstan dan Bashkortostan, Siberia yang dikenal sebagai tempat pembuangan, wilayah pegunungan Ural, distrik-distrik federal di wilayah Volga Bawah, dan bahkan mereka juga tinggal dan berkembang di kota-kota besar Rusia macam St. Petersburg dan ibukota Moskow. 

Bukharev mencatat bahwa umat muslim Rusia bersamaan dengan umat Kristen Ortodoks di sana ikut membentuk peradaban tersendiri yang tangguh dan maju di jantung Rusia. Ia juga menjelaskan adanya peran penting Ulama dalam proses panjang ini. 

Judul buku ini mencerminkan 4 periode besar yang menyusun perjalanan sejarah umat Islam Rusia, yakni:

  • Musim semi (922-1229 M): Periode kedatangan Islam di tepi sungai Volga hingga penyerangan dan penghancuran pasukan Genghis Khan.
  • Musim panas (1229-1400an M): Periode sejarah Pasukan Emas sampai keruntuhannya menjadi sejumlah pemerintahan otonom Muslim.
  • Musim gugur (1400an-1583 M): Periode saat muslim berkembang di Kazan, Astrakhan, Kasimov dan Siberian Khanate hingga jatuhnya Siberian Khanate ke tangan Rusia.
  • Musim dingin (1583-1800an M): Masa umat muslim Rusia bertahan dalam penindasan hingga dekrit Ratu Katerina yang Agung yang mengembalikan hak memeluk agama Islam secara terang-terangan pada umat muslim (karena sebelumnya mereka tidak diizinkan mengaku sebagai muslim dan beribadah dengan leluasa) dan menghapus larangan pencetakan buku-buku Islam di Rusia.

Bukharev sendiri bukan sejarawan atau akademisi. Ia mengaku menulis buku ini selama 20 tahun sebagai seorang penulis kreatif dan mantan matematikawan yang secara gigih merangkai bukti-bukti sejarah dan esai soal Muslim Rusia, sebuah topik yang menjadi ketertarikannya sejak lama. 

Memiliki akar keturunan dan budaya dari masyarakat Kazan Tatar, Bukharev merasa gemas dan jengkel saat mengetahui bahwa peradaban Muslim di kota Ufa milik nenek moyangnya itu tenggelam di balik sejarah Rusia yang menundukkan mereka sejak 4 abad lalu itu. Masyarakat dunia tersedot perhatiannya ke Moskow dan lupa bahwa ada wilayah yang dinamai “Idel-Ural” yang permai dan sejahtera tapi secara historis memiliki budaya Islam yang aneh dan seakan terpatah akibat invasi Rusia. Dan kini peninggalan budaya Muslim itu masih terus membayangi masyarakat sana yang dikelilingi lingkungan yang kental dengan ajaran Kristen Ortodoks, yang lebih disokong Moskow.

Kalau dianalogikan dengan konteks Indonesia, masyarakat Kazan Tatar mirip dengan Timor Timur yang merasa terjajah, bukannya terlindungi, oleh Indonesia.  Indonesia menjadikan Timor Timur sebagai salah satu provinsinya. Demikian juga Rusia yang mencaplok wilayah Kazan Tatar. Bedanya Rusia begitu kuat sehingga Kazan Tatar belum bisa memisahkan diri.

Hebatnya orang Rusia adalah kemampuan mereka memelintir sejarah. Saat menaklukkan masyarakat Kazan Tartar, Rusia menggunakan taktik sejarah dengan mengorek trauma masa lalu orang Kazan Tartar dan membuat mereka berpikir bahwa Rusia adalah teman. Caranya adalah dengan mengatakan pada orang Kazan Tartar bahwa Rusia tidak ada hubungannya dengan Genghis Khan yang dulu memporakporandakan mereka dan Rusia adalah keturunan orang Volga Bulgar yang notabene Muslim Turki. Padahal Rusia itu orang Slavic yang beragama Kristen Ortodoks.

Sejarah muslim Rusia berawal dari sejarah Volga Bulgar yang membentang dari abad ke-10 hingga 12 Masehi. Di tahun 1989 menjadi perayaan ke 1100 kedatangan resmi Islam ke tepi Sungai Volga dan menjadi awal mula perjalanan Bukharev meluruskan sejarah leluhurnya.

Kata PM Inggris Winston Churchill, makin jauh kita memandang ke belakang, makin jauh kita bisa melihat ke depan. Bukharev menggunakan kutipan ini sebagai penyemangat bagi dirinya dalam mengurai sejarah nenek moyangnya yang seolah terkubur sejak kedatangan Rusia.

Kalau ditanya: “Apa gunanya belajar sejarah tentang bagaimana Rusia memperlakukan umat Muslim di negaranya?”  Ya jawaban simpelnya supaya kita bisa setidaknya memprediksi strategi yang mereka terapkan pada kita sebagai bangsa dengan populasi Muslim terbesar di dunia. 

Sekarang Rusia masih memandang dan memperlakukan kita sebagai teman. Kita pun demikian. Tapi sampai kapan pertemanan ini akan bisa bertahan? Haruskah ada yang kita waspadai dari Rusia? That’s the question.

Umat Muslim Rusia tak pernah dianggap penting karena jumlahnya terlalu kecil untuk bisa mempengaruhi jalannya pengambilan keputusan Negara dan arah pemerintahan. Dunia penelitian juga ikut meremehkan peran umat Muslim Rusia, yang dibuktikan dengan langkanya penelitian soal kelompok ini. Intinya, buat apa meneliti hal yang tidak punya efek apa-apa? Ada atau tidak, tidak ada bedanya. (bersambung)

The Story of Vladimir Putin

STEVEN Lee Myers begins his book The New Tsar: The Rise and Reign of Vladimir Putin (2015) with a quote by Russian legendary author Fyodor Dostoevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov, saying every meek Russian is tired with the hard life they have to endure and to ease their pain, they need something or someone they can rely on as a savior. 

This apprently holds true not only for Russians but also for us. Indonesians share the same mindset. The Javanese people, for example, have this “Satrio Piningit”. The Christians have “The Messiah”. Life sucks and we need a power stronger than us to lift us from this miserable existence.

This leads to a question: “Is Vladimir Putin a saint or a devil to Russians?

To give some context for the entire content, Myers displays a set of maps for the sake of comparison. The first set  shows us Russia in the Soviet Union era (before its doom in 1991) and the second one is Russia’s new smaller territory after the 1991 downfall. 

Putin to me is the modern Patih Gajahmada. He has the dream of reuniting the already crumbling Russian great empire. Majapahit’s Gajahmada had that reunification dream in the archipelago which had evolved into smaller kingdoms.  

All this reunification mission needs sacrifice. Lots of blood to spill, money to fund the warfare, simply every bit of resource of a nation.

The 1st chapter of the book tells us how in 1941 Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (who was our dear Putin’s father) had to fight a brutal war as a soldier to break the siege of the German Nazi troops over the city of Leningrad which these Germans wanted to ruin completely. He got hurt by a German’s  grenade.

Putin’s grandfather, Spiridon Putin, was a pro-Bolshevik chef at a hotel. In 1917 when the city of St. Petersburg was torn by a revolution, Spiridon Putin ran away and went back to his home village, Pominovo, near Moscow.

Spiridon Putin once cooked for Grigory Rasputin at the Astoria Hotel where he worked, also cooked for Lenin’s widow and worked later for Moscow’s Communist Party Committee. So he was deliberately bringing himself closer to the political elite.

Spiridonovich Putin’s son, Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (our today’s Putin’s biological father), joined NKVD, a secret police agency that later would become the cold and brutal KGB. So now you know why Putin is what he is now.

Putin’s father was a tough soldier, successfully escaping from the Nazis while many other got caught and killed on a life-or-death mission. 

To describe the brutality of Stalin regime, every soldier who safely escaped from a mission was interogated. “Are you still alive because you ran for life or betrayed or was being a coward?” interrogated the authorities.

The war against Nazi killed more than 100,000 Russians in Leningrad every month.

Vladimir Putin’s parents, Vladimir and Maria, lost their first son Oleg and then later their second son, Viktor, during the siege.

This great patriotic war is the favorite story Putin’s parents tell their third son with. They were ordinary people with simple ways of thinking, seeing Russia as an unbeatable nation. They didn’t seem to understand politics and complexities around the colossal war that had killed some of the Putins too. 

EARLY YEARS

Born in 1952, the little Vladimir Putin grew up listening to this victorious narrative of Russia from his father and mother at home. To him there was no question or a bit of doubt that the Russian State had done its best job to protect its people.

As the third son in the family after a tumultuous time, Vladimir Putin was treated as a miracle. Meanwhile, his parents lived a simple life. His father and mother got no higher education so they were hired as blue collar workers with low wages. 

Though Putin’s father was a Communist Party member, his mother was an Orthodox Christian believer and stealthily baptized Putin at a nearby church. 

Oddly enough, Communism and Orthodox Christianity coexist in Putin’s life from an early age.  Little Putin was also exposed to Judaism through Baba Anya, a Jewish old lady living in the same communal home as the Putins.  

Unlike the strong and muscular image Putin shows us now with his shirtless photos, Little Putin was a tiny and weak boy. His size was not special and there was a possibility that Little Putin got bullied in school because of his underaverage physical features. 

As the third son born who survived, Little Putin was taken care of by his mother very overprotectively. Though they love each other, the Putins was not an expressive family when it came to love and affection. They kept it private or probably did not even show it to each other.

At 8, Little Putin was sent to a kindergarten just because his mother was too cautious. A little bit too old. So no wonder Little Putin lacked social skills. He had very few friends because of his mom’s overprotectiveness.

At school, Little Putin was just an indifferent and spoiled kid but befriended two kids from the Kovshovs. They were bad influence to Little Putin who got caught later carrying a knife inside the school area. Little Putin slowly became a juvenile with delinquent issues, which made him difficult to join the Pioneers, the Communist Party youth organization. His father was furious of course because he was a loyal member of the Communist Party himself. To have a son who wasn’t qualified to join the youth organization of the party was such a shame.

According to his teacher Vera Gurevich, Little Putin was intelligent but cold, awful, disorganized and uninterested in school. The teacher believed Little Putin could have done better at school but with such a bad attitude, Little Putin was not going too far in life.

Pissed off, his father said to the teacher: “Well, what can I do? Kill him or what?”

Oh, had he killed Little Putin, the world may not have had to be this chaotic. 

His father made him take a boxing course to channel his overflowing energy and anger but Little Putin left it too soon just because someone punched and broke his nose. So Little Putin decided to take a Russian martial arts (sambo) class unbeknownst to his parents. Sambo is a Soviet style martial art which combines judo and wrestling.  Little Putin’s love of sambo and judo continued as he grew older. Putin used to be a judo and taekwondo blackbelt holder but ever since the Ukraine invasion, the respective organizations have denied his title.

Martial arts is his strategy to gain respect and position in the social circles. He might be smaller as a fighter but if he had to fight with larger and taller boys, Little Putin would win because he knew techniques to choke and kick these boys’ groin, making them unconscious or cry for their future fertility. 

In martial arts, Little Putin made new friends Arkady and Boris Rotenberg, two of his lifetime loyal buddies. Martial arts also gave him a bunch of philosophy lessons of life. It saved him from street life and he was thankful for that to his encounter with sambo and judo in his tender years. In short, martial arts is Putin’s lifelong passion which is why he can stay fit even in his 70s.

Little Putin finally got his membership of the Pioneers.  But amazingly in a short time, Putin became the leader of his school Pioneer branch. This title earned him the first leadership that showed his talent as a head in a crowd. Few years later, Young Putin officially joined the Communist Party’s youth organization Komsomol before his peers at school.

TEENAGE YEARS 

At 16, Vladimir Putin loved an espionage story adapted into a 5-hour movie, The Shield and the Sword, written by war journalist Vadim Kozhevnikov. He always remembers the movie as something heroic and patriotic because it glorifies the Soviet Secret Service (KGB) and its dedication to the State (Stalin) as Russia fought against Schutzstaffel (SS/ Hitler’s defenders).

The protagonist of the movie, Johann Weiss a.k.a. Major Aleksandr Belov, was clearly Putin’s idol. He is good looking,  physically robust, agile, and incredibly smart. As a Soviet spy in Germany, Weiss succeeded in “deciding the fate of thousands of people”, admired Putin. Later Putin was inspired by the character and decided to set his own dream to become a spy for Russia. He naively went to a KGB local branch office and said, “I want to be a KGB volunteer, sir.” But KGB was never such an open organization. Obviously Putin was rejected.

Young Putin was not aware of the State’s campaign behind the movie. The movie was part of a public image revamp of KGB. Its new director Yuri Andropov wanted the organization to be more acknowledged as people’s protector instead of oppressors and terrorists to Russians.

After rejection of his request to become a KGB volunteer, Young Putin didn’t stop there. He went to Big House (KGB headquarters in Leningrad) and asked a KGB officer what it took to become an agent. He was really ambitious about this KGB thing and espionage world. Putin asked what study would make him qualify as a KGB agent and the agent jokingly answered: “Law”. Putin took this seriously.

Putin went to college to study law as advised despite his parents’ disagreement. His father and mother thought Vladimir Putin was more suitable for a technical school because of his uncontrollable temperament. A skillful spy must be able to hide emotions and even act and think and split his personality.   

Putin’s teenage years were full of freedom compared to other teenagers in the country. He liked listening to the Beatles’ music, likening their songs to a window on the outside world and a breath of fresh air. He played the accordion and learned Russian folk songs in the era. The Putins were not a wealthy family but their living standard improved as the economy grew.

As a high school student, Putin was known to be a modest, studious, serious, brash, and athletic student. With his ordinary looks, he was not as popular as other jocks but definitely not the worst and least popular student there was. 

Putin religiously studied German (probably to become as close as possible to his dream as the real Johann Weiss), humanities, literary works, and history.

Putin’s high school teacher was Mina Yuditskaya who later influenced the young man significantly. Putin also enjoyed this influence she had on him.

Putin devoted his time to sports and academic pursuits throughout his high school years. A girl named Vera Brileva had a crush on Putin but he had his focus set on many things, and love wasn’t one of them.

Putin excelled at History and German lessons but sucked at Math and Science, giving hopes to all of you who are not fans of both subjects at school. You can still have an outstanding future!

In his final year, Putin set his focus on the Law Department at Leningrad State University, a prestigious institution with a really high passing grade. Only one in 40 applicants could be the student. But somehow, he finally made it! As to how he could, it could be his family background as part of the working class or unknown intervention from the KGB internal staff. No one knew for sure. But it didn’t matter anymore because now Putin lived the path as suggested by a KGB officer 2 years before. Was it a pure coincidence?

COLLEGE YEARS

Putin fully committed himself to studying law and judo. He never smoked. He didn’t drink liquor at all. Healthy lifestyle was his way to stay fit as a spy. No KGB spy was obese, weak, and slow. So it made sense that he adopted this lifestyle.

He won judo championships in various cities and regions. He traveled a lot just for these judo competitions. Putin explored Moldova, Abkhazia, the northern part of Russia, Black Sea, Odessa, and many other parts of Russia outside Leningrad. He turned very adventurous.

As a momma’s boy, Putin was gifted a brand new car after his mother won a lottery. A 3,500 rubles-worth car was a luxurious commodity in the Soviet Union in the 1970s so we can imagine Putin went to college by car, admired by the entire neighborhood and classmates. Such a badass!

But Putin still couldn’t manage his bad temper. He was still as wild and careless as before. He hit a man with his car but denied that he hit this man deliberately. “He tried to commit suicide. I’m no beast,” Putin defended himself.

At this point, Putin had gradually given up his previous dream of becoming a KGB agent. He worked as an intern at the local Transportation Ministry and he thought he would be just an officer at the institution.

He would have been one if an unknown man hadn’t approached him in 1974. The man, apparently a KGB recruiter overseeing universities,  recruited Young Putin to be a real KGB agent.

But before that, a background check was run and it was brutally thorough because you know, it’s KGB. Not an amateurish, small, carelessly-operated organization.

His father was interviewed by a KGB agent, saying, “Volodya (Putin’s nickname at home) is everything for us.” He had high hopes for his son’s future as a KGB agent. His father was of course very proud of this.

Putin had learned the consequences of working as a KGB agent, also knew very well what KGB did in the past and all of its ruthless policies in Russia and outside Russia. But he was as determined as he was years before. Now he’d be the real Johann Weiss! A real hero that can save Russia and bring national stability and security to Russians.

At the onset of recruitment, Putin was aware of the fact that Stalin, their leader, was not as perfect and heroic as the Russian public knew. Stalin killed millions of people in his country, too. 

But Putin felt okay about this. These dark stories of Russia would remain untold and ignored. Putin chose to focus more on the glory and pride as “an utterly successful product of the patriotic education of a Soviet man.” He knew well a Soviet man could and was allowed to do literally anything, even that is cruel and inhumane, for the sake of Russia. He agreed with this idea and completely believed the “right or wrong it’s my country” dogma. 

PUTIN’S LIFE INSIDE  KGB 

Putin by this time had lived the life of a KGB agent but he was a ‘victim’ of the secret agent  movie. Working as a KGB agent isn’t always as romantic and suspenseful as Johann Weiss’ path. Putin’s work was boring and not special at all at first. It was a period of peace, so he worked at the Secretariat of the Directorate, the personnel office of the KGB’s Leningrad headquarters.

At 23, Putin worked as a junior bureaucrat at KGB, inundated with papers at office and living with his parents at home without a separate bedroom. You can imagine how much a young man that age demanded some privacy. So if you already have your own bedroom since elementary school or high school, consider yourself lucky and privileged.

Putin worked with old people. Everyone around him at work was KGB officers who had worked since Stalin era.

For the first time in his adult life, Putin drank liquor at the celebration of his being appointed KGB agent. He invited some close friends only.

Yuri Andropov, KGB’s director at that time, was obsessed with modernizing the country to keep up with the West. Russia was a country with an obsolete system and he wanted to bring more power and stability into all of its sectors, especially ideology. To Putin, Andropov was a little god to worship.

Like all young employees in their honeymoon phase at work, Putin also enjoyed romanticizing his work as a KGB agent.  He believed that he was an important defender of law and order in Russia, a big nation in the world. He felt he belonged and became part of something colossal.

A year later, Putin left the personnel department and entered the counterintelligence department where he was trained to find spies and betrayers inside the organization and bureaucracy. In this department, Putin learned how to apply cruel tactics that KGB usually used to torture the enemies of State (Soviet authority).

Putin claimed most informants were derived from Soviet citizens. He interrogated people who were suspected of spreading information to foreign parties (the West). They could be journalists, entrepreneurs, and even gymnasts who just met foreigners.

As a spy, no one knew exactly what he did in the KGB but he certainly lived a double or maybe triple life. But certainly Putin’s work was not as heroic as Johann Weiss in the movie he watched many years ago in his teenage years. He was a victim of KGB romanticization.

Life as a spy is lonely so it makes sense inside the KGB Putin made friends who also worked as agents. Among his friends in the KGB was Viktor Cherkesov, a staffer in the Fifth Chief Directorate that later worked against dissidents including religious believers (remember that Soviet was a communist state at the time).

After 6 months in counterintelligence, Putin moved to the KGB’s elite branch: First Chief Directorate. He was taking care of intelligence operations beyond Soviet territory. Only a few staffers were assigned in this branch. His excellent mastery of German back in college helped him secure this position. His tasks were – simply put – following wherever foreigners and diplomats go in Leningrad consulates. In short, it was a boring job. LOL. No KGB agent could manage to save Russia alone like Johann Weiss.

Putin at this stage was just a young man who just worked like others. He showed no big ambition to be a key officer in the KGB at all. And he didn’t seem disappointed with the boring nature of his job as an ordinary KGB agent. He worked just like one of the corporate slaves these days. No promotion, no cry. Just getting by day by day is enough.

At 25, as a KGB officer, Putin finally could live on his own after his father retired and was gifted a tiny apartment by the State. So by this time, Putin had already had two properties: an apartment and a car. He spent his free time exploring the entire city and still enjoyed fighting on streets just like he did in his childhood and teenage years. Putin clearly was not afraid of risks and dangers from his bad habit. He felt he was entitled to protection from the State because he was a KGB agent. No ordinary citizen could harm a KGB agent. He knew this and he abused his power. Putin never changed. He was still as reckless and temperamental as before. Only now he got a badge to justify his actions.

To many of his friends, Putin said he was a police officer in the Interior Ministry and never mentioned KGB because well, he was a spy. Even to Sergei Roldugin (a friend who was a classical cellist) he admitted he was a specialist in human relations. He refused to talk even further about his occupation.

From the first lieutenant, in 1979 Putin was promoted to the rank of captain in KGB. He was then sent to attend KGB’s Higher School, only to come back to Leningrad and spying on foreigners just like what he did before. But unfortunately, he caught no spies. Strangely enough, a senior said his work was “productive” despite this record. No wonder because Soviet was in a state of peace and stability.

Before 1980 Putin was still single and the conservative Soviet society and institutions didn’t like his singledom. That was because a single agent was more prone to extramarital affairs, which may make him an easy prey of blackmail.

Young Putin was a good KGB agent but not a boyfriend material to any Soviet girls. He could barely manage a smooth conversation with ladies despite his looks and physical prowess.

According to Roldugin, Putin had begun his romantic relationship with Lyudmila Khmarina, a friend’s sister. In 1979, Putin was engaged to her but just before his marriage Putin broke up with her. “It’s better to suffer now than later”, Putin explained his action. As the one and only son who got spoiled his whole life, Putin grew accustomed to single life and even thought he would be living the rest of his life without any spouse. And that’s exactly what we see him now. A widower who lives his life without any problems.

But in 1980, Putin changed his mind. He met with a charming blonde stewardess named Lyudmila Shkrebneva. Putin was not dressed properly the night he met her and the young stewardess even didn’t pay much attention to him. The stewardess asked Putin if he could help her buy a musical performance ticket and he said yes. Putin gave her his phone number, an action he never did to a stranger or a new acquaintance like Ms. Shkrebneva.

Their relationship was not smooth sailing. Shkrebneva had to abandon his stewardess career and got back to university just because Putin wanted her to. Putin turned out to be a very jealous, possessive and dominant boyfriend. And when Putin’s mother met with the new girlfriend of her son, she wasn’t fond of the ex stewardess and told her opinion to the young lady brazenly. He had a better Lyudmila, Maria said rudely. 

Shkrebneva finally found out about Putin’s occupation after 1,5 years they were dating. She had mixed feelings about her lover’s job in the KGB: pride and fear of being ‘in the dark’. The job was awesome and even noble but there was also some fear that she could never understand Putin well. There would always be things to hide in their household. Unspoken topics and feelings. 

Despite this, Skhrebneva accepted Putin’s marriage proposal. On July 28, 1983 they got married. The couple ironically enough went to Ukraine on their honeymoon. They rode through Kiev and Crimea, two places Putin would annex and destroy years later. 

Putin apparently used marriage as a strategy to advance his career in the KGB. This was said by one of his colleagues in the KGB. That’s because bachelorhood was not favored by the KGB key officials.

After his marriage Putin was promoted to a major and sent to The Red Banner Institute, an elite foreign intelligence school in Moscow. The Leningrad branch of KGB sent Putin to this Academy because he was considered a working class young man who was not spoiled, smart with languages and very loyal to the Soviet union. 

This Academy was very discriminative. They did not accept any young officers who practiced religions. They did not except any Jews or Muslim ethnicity from Tatar and Chechnya.

While the Soviet Union was waging war in Afghanistan, inside their leadership circle there was a step back. The KGB‘s chief officer Yuri Andropov died suddenly and also his successor without warning died. The Soviet Union was in a crisis inside, and the KGB agents knew this really well.

While Lyudmila was pregnant at home, Putins was starting foreign intelligence courses at the red banner institute for years. Here Putin learned how to go undercover as a spy. He could use any identities he needed. These KGB agents might introduce themselves as journalists, trade Delegates, or Russian diplomats. 

At the Red Banner  Academy, Putin was seen as a shining candidate. He showed his best potential to the instructors right there. And he started to use an alias, Comrade Platov.

Putin was very lucky because he could learn foreign intelligence techniques and tricks from the very best. The red banner Academy consisted of three departments namely counter intelligence department, Political department, and science and technology department.

There are three KGP veterans instructing here. They had a very strong reputation in the past, they managed to penetrate the British power things to some Cambridge graduates.

In 1985, their first born daughter Maria was born. At this time his career seemed to blossom even more. He was an established family man and a shining career. 

Because Putin spoke German fluently, his chance to be sent to German-speaking countries was high. But which country was it? Putin had no idea because he was just to accept whatever decision the elite made. 

If he was to be sent as a spy in a capitalist German-speaking country, his journey would be even longer. That was because as an agent he had to immerse himself into the Western, capitalistic culture and system. To learn all of these things, he might need another year or two at the academy.

Putin’s weakness is that he is a risk taker. It is one of his characters since childhood that is not gonna go away easily. Even Putin had worked for the KGB and learned so much at the red banner Academy, he seemed to be over willing to take risks, even that means taking risks that are not worth it. He sometimes got involved in fighting on streets with thugs just because he was tempted to do so. The most recent was a fight in a metro in Leningrad.

With such an overly bold and brave character, he could be a great MMA fighter or a wrestler or an extreme sport enthusiast, but for Secret Service, especially KGB agent being a risk taker is just not the desired character.

Based on KGB evaluation on Putin’s character and performance, He was considered mediocre. He failed to show any interest in building a career as an agent or a spy. He is withdrawn and unable to communicate smoothly with other people. Putin’s best characteristics would be his academic prowess, his tendency to be pedantic, and his smart brain. 

Putin’s Worst character proved to put his career in halt because it hindered his career progress. Instead of finishing his supposedly three year education in the Academy, he finished at the end of the first year and then got sent to Dresden, Germany.

At this time Putin was already 33 years old. Though in his early 30s he never went abroad so being dispatched to Dresden was the first Foreign assignment that he had as a KGB agent. So if you think that someone has to go around the world visiting as many countries as possible in his 20s, that just doesn’t apply to everyone and life just goes on. If you can’t visit foreign countries in your twenties, it doesn’t mean the end of the world.

In Dresden, he showed himself as someone with exemplary work ethos, humble roots of the working class, and fast adaptability to the whole new environment. He won the heart of a senior even. But on top of that, Putin dared to show his free thinking, his belief in  God and individuality. He wasn’t afraid to be different from others though he was careful enough not to show it to superiors.

Life in Dresden was much better than Russia. Major Putin, his wife Lyudmila and their little daughter Maria now could enjoy luxurious stuff and privileges no one in Russia had. They could buy bananas, expensive outfits, and even porn.

For the first time in his life, Putin started to stop practicing judo. He didn’t exercise at all in Dresden and gained a considerable amount of extra weight thanks to his new habit of drinking local beer. He seemed to enjoy and fully immerse himself in German culture and society.

Putin was a bit disappointed since he didn’t have a son so he impregnated Lyudmilla again but alas, their second kid was a daughter again, Yekaterina. 

As a husband and father, Putin was extremely patriarchist, old school, traditional,  and conservative. He never helped Lyudmilla with household chores and babysitting. To Putin, his tasks were working as a KGB agent and providing his family things they needed. He never praised Lyudmilla for her dedication because he thought praises made women spoiled.

At first this kind of life seemed privileged, and comfortable. They all had whatever they needed except that these KGB families were not allowed to interact with anyone outside the housing compound. Pretty much like living in a golden cage. Lyudmilla was so stressed out.

Being a spy himself, Putin was very careful but Lyudmilla of course wasn’t. She befriended an allegedly West German foreign spy. Lyudmilla told the spy that her marriage was rocky, and that Putin was a temperamental and unfaithful husband. Lyudmilla thought Putin slept with other women, claiming him a serial womanizer. It was clearly not a happy marriage. (to be continued)

Ulama Berpolitik? Pantaskah? Begini Jawaban Bapak Sosiologi Ibnu Khaldun

PERNAH denger ada kyai yang marah-marah di YouTube karena ada pihak yang mencibir ulama yang terjun ke politik. Katanya dengan nada keras dan penuh kemarahan: “Itu ajarannya Belanda. Dulu mereka ingin supaya ulama nggak ikut campur ke politik supaya bisa menindas rakyat dan rakyat nggak bisa diberdayakan ulama. Jadi kalau sekarang ada yang ngomong gitu, jangan mau! Itu pemikiran penjajah!!”

Tapi kalau denger pendapatnya Ibnu Khaldun soal ulama yang tidak seharusnya terjun politik juga memang ada benarnya.

Kenapa?

Karena dunia ulama itu dunia idealisme dan intelektualitas, fokusnya ke ide-ide besar dan umum. Politik itu dunia pragmatis, mikirnya untung rugi, kepentingan sesaat, printilan duniawi tok.

Intelektual yang sejati nggak akan suka dengan politik, kata Ibnu Khaldun. Jadi kalau ada mengaku intelektual tapi kok mengejar jabatan publik, ya patut disangsikan komitmen dan konsistensinya sebagai intelektual. Nggak usah nyebut nama, kita tahulah orang-orang yang dulunya dikenal ilmuwan, ulama, akademisi tapi begitu terjun ke politik ya gitu deh. Sama aja ending-nya dengan orang-orang yang tanpa gelar bertumpuk-tumpuk.

Jadi kalau ulama dan akademisi kayak dosen, guru, rektor masuk politik ya biasanya kacau balau kerjanya. Buktinya sudah ada di mana-mana di negara ini. LOL…

Menurut Ibnu Khaldun, yang seharusnya masuk dunia politik itu orang-orang awam yang bukan orang yang unggul dalam pemikiran intelektual. Mereka ini paham betul bagaimana berpikir secara teknis dan praktis. Bukan idealis sebagaimana ulama dan akademisi.

Jadi kalau ada pilkada atau pilpres, menuruti saran dari Ibnu Khaldun, kita lebih baik pilih calon yang dari kalangan awam, praktisi, bukan ulama dan cendekiawan.

Kalau menurutku, ya memang nggak jadi politikus juga ulama dan akademisi masih bisa kok berpartisipasi dalam mengarahkan pemerintah ke jalan yang benar. Ya misalnya dengan memberikan konsultasi, arahan dan nasihat pada pemerintah di saat-saat genting kayak sekarang, saat negara makin turun empatinya pada rakyat dan nggak berdaya dalam menghadapi kartel, oligark, dinasti dan kelompok-kelompok yang secara egois mengutamakan kepentingan dan keuntungan mereka sendiri daripada kesejahteraan rakyat.

Karena sekali udah kecebur politik dan mencicipi kekuasaan, udah susah melepaskan. Kecanduannya lebih parah dari pecandu narkoba. Maunya nambah masa jabatan teros! Nggak peduli awalnya kelihatan sealim dan se-humble apapun. (*/)

Thermae Romae Novae: Saat Barat Belajar dari Timur

MARI YAMAZAKI, sang pembuat serial animasi, pernah tinggal di Italia dan menemukan bahwa peradaban Romawi Kuno memiliki budaya pemandian yang mirip dengan apa yang dimiliki oleh negara asalnya Jepang.

Dari situ, ia tercetus ide untuk membuat sebuah serial animasi yang mengisahkan perjalanan seorang tokoh sejarah Lucius Modestus yang dikenal sebagai arsitek andal dari kecil hingga ia bisa mencapai puncak sebagai seorang arsitek tempat pemandian yang menjadi teman dekat kaisar Romawi saat itu, Hadrian. Kaisar satu ini memang dikenal senang dengan hal-hal berbau seni dan budaya termasuk arsitektur. Ia bahkan memiliki bakat arsitektur juga.

Sebagai plot twist-nya, Lucius ini diceritakan bisa melakukan perjalanan waktu ke Jepang di abad 21. Sehingga ia terpapar dengan banyak hal yang masih terkait dengan budaya mandi di Jepang yang tentu sudah dianggap sangat canggih dan maju jika dibandingkan standar Romawi Kuno.

Saat menonton serial ini, saya seperti dihadapkan pada dua bagian yakni bagian animasi saat menceritakan hidup Lucius di Romawi saat pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian. Dan satu bagian adalah sesi saaat Mari Yamazaki melakukan perjalanan napak tilas untuk menggali budaya mandi di Jepang yang konon usianya sudah lebih tua dari usia peradaban Romawi Kuno. Jadi dari premis bahwa Jepang sudah lebih dulu punya budaya mandi daripada orang Romawi Kuno inilah ia membuat serial animasi Thermae Romae Novae.

Ada hal yang membuat saya terkesan dengan keberanian Yamazaki di sini ialah bahwa ia seorang wanita Asia yang mengisahkan cerita dari sudut pandang seorang laki-laki Romawi yang penuh dengan nuansa macho dan maskulin.

Karena di sini temanya mandi, otomatis tidak bisa dihindari adegan di kamar mandi, saat Lucius telanjang bulat. Karena pemandian Romawi Kuno cuma khusus laki-laki, Yamazaki juga otomatis mesti menggambar banyak tubuh pria dari berbagai usia dalam kondisi tanpa benang sehelai pun.

Karena budaya Jepang masih menabukan gambar atau foto penis secara terbuka tanpa sensor, tentu ada beberapa pengaburan alat kelamin pria di adegan-adegan itu. Di satu adegan saat Lucius mandi dengan seorang kakek di kamar mandi pribadinya, di situ alat vital Lucius disensor.

Lucius di sini digambarkan sebagai seorang pria yang memiliki kepercayaan diri penuh sebagai seorang pria dari kebudayaan yang maju. Ia tak malu harus berjalan ke sana kemari dalam kondisi tanpa busana. Dan egonya tertusuk saat ia mengetahui bahwa orang-orang Jepang yang lebih pendek dan pesek justru memiliki peradaban dan kebudayaan mandi yang jauh lebih maju.

Uniknya di sini semua dialog Lucius dalam bahasa Jepang tapi saat berada dengan orang-orang Jepang modern ia gagap dan tak bisa berbahasa Jepang. Mungkin ini demi kemudahan penonton mencerna percakapan saja.

Melalui seri animasi ini, Yamazaki menurut saya menegaskan bahwa budaya mandi Jepang lebih maju dari Romawi lho. Kami sudah lebih baik dan lebih awal memulai, pesannya dalam setiap episode. (*/)

Di setiap pemandian, Lucius diceritakan bisa menembus lorong waktu ke Jepang modern. (Foto: FilmyHype)

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