Tenses

SIMPLE PRESENT

    Affirmative : Aladdin plays all day long in the streets of Baghdad.

    Negative : Aladdin doesn’t play all day long in the streets of Baghdad.

    Aff.question : Does Aladdin play all day long in the streets of Baghdad?

    Neg.questio : Doesn’t Aladdin play all day long in the streets of Baghdad?

    WH question : Who plays all day long in the streets of Baghdad?

    Tag question : Aladdin plays all day long in the streets of Baghdad, doesn’t he?

     

    SIMPLE PAST

    Affirmative : Aladdin’s uncle drew a ring from his finger.

    Negative : Aladdin’s uncle did not draw a ring from his finger.

    Aff.question : Did Aladdin’s uncle draw a ring from his finger?

    Neg.questio : Didn’t Aladdin’s uncle draw a ring from his finger?

    WH question : What did Aladdin’s uncle do?

    Tag question : Aladdin’s uncle did not draw a ring from his finger, did he?

    Continue reading “Tenses”

    Verb Phrases

    Cover of "The St. Martin's Handbook"
    Cover of The St. Martin's Handbook
    Definition:(1) In traditional grammar, a word group that includes a verb and its auxiliaries

    (2) In generative grammar, a predicate: that is, a lexical verb and all the words governed by that verb except a subject.

    Examples and Observations:

    • V[erb] P[hrase]s can be identified by . . . substitution procedures. Consider the sentence Lou cried, where criedconstitutes the VP. Among many others, the following strings can substitute for cried in the slot Lou _____. They thus fit the frame and are VPs (the verb in each VP is italicized):

      Lou fell.
      Lou lost the race,
      Lou won a prize for his efforts in the tournament.

      (Edward Finegan, Language: Its Structure and Use, 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2008)

    • [7] I was reading the letter to John.

      “. . . I will make two crude assumptions (i) and (ii) about what is inside the verb phrase , along with the verb (which is its head) . . ..

      (i) The verb phrase contains anything which follows the verb within the same sentence.
      (ii) The verb phrase contains the auxiliary verbs which precede the verb (i.e. words like might, could, should, have, be and do) and the negation word not.

      Based on these assumptions, the only word in [7] which is not in the verb phrase is the word I, this being the noun phrase which preceds the verb. The verb phrase thus takes up most of the sentence.”
      (Nigel Fabb, Sentence Structure, 2nd ed. Routledge, 2005)

    • “The verb is the easiest constituent to recognize because of its formal characteristics. The verb of the sentence takes the form of a verb phrase, and the first or only word in the verb phrase indicates present or past tense. Thus, like is present in [1] and liked is past in [1a]:

      [1] I like the music.
      [1a] I liked the music.

      In [2] have is present tense even though have thanked refers to past time:

      [2] I have thanked them for the gift.

      In contrast, had is past tense:

      [2a] I had thanked them for the gift.

      In [2a] had thanked is the verb phrase, and thanked is the main verb. The phrase can be replaced by the one wordthanked, in which case thanked is past tense and its corresponding present is thank.

      [2b] I thanked them for the gift.
      [2c] I thank them for the gift.

      (Sidney GreenbaumThe Oxford English Grammar. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996)

    • Putting auxiliary verbs in order
      In the sentence Immigration figures may have been rising, the main verb rising follows three auxiliaries: may, have,and been. Together these auxiliaries and main verb make up a verb phrase

      • May is a modal that indicates possibility; it is followed by the base form of a verb.
      • Have is an auxiliary verb that in this case indicates the perfect tense; it must be followed by a past participle (been).
      • Any form of be, when it is followed by a present participle ending in -ing (such as rising), indicates theprogressive tense.
      • Be followed by a past participle, as in New immigration policies have been passed in recent years, indicates thepassive voice.

      . . . [W]hen two or more auxiliaries appear in a verb phrase, they must follow a particular order based on the type of auxiliary: (1) modal, (2) a form of have used to indicate a perfect tense, (3) a form of be used to indicate a progressive tense, and (4) a form of be used to indicate the passive voice. (Very few sentences include all four kinds of auxiliaries.)

      “Only one modal is permitted in a verb phrase.”
      (Andrea Lunsford, The St. Martin’s Handbook, 6th ed. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008)

    Modifier

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    Definition:A word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to limit or qualify the meaning of another word or word group (called the head). 

    Modifiers that appear before the head are called premodifiers. Modifiers that appear after the head are called postmodifiers.

    Examples:

    • “Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.”
      (Humphrey Bogart as Rick in Casablanca, 1942)
    • “As the leader of all illegal activities in Casablanca, I am an influential and respected man.”
      (Sydney Greenstreet as Senor Ferrari in Casablanca
    • “You can tell me now. I’m reasonably sober.”
      (Rick in Casablanca)
    • Major Strasser: What is your nationality?
      Rick: I’m a drunkard.
      Captain Renault: That makes Rick a citizen of the world.
      (Casablanca)

    Complements

    Complements are words that come after linking verbs and modify nouns. The most common noun complements are adjectives and nouns, but can be many other parts of speech as well.

    TestMagic uses the term noun complement more liberally than do some other grammar resources; doing so will make grammar explanations for tests much, much easier and faster.

    Examples of complements

    All the highlighted words or phrases below are complements.

    I consider you a friend.

    Megumi called her ex-boyfriend a philistine.

    Verb

    Definition  of verb:

    one of the major grammatical groups, and all sentences must contain one. Verbs refer to anaction (do, break, walk, etc.) or a state (be, like, own).

    The verb tense shows the time of the action or state. Aspect shows whether the action or state is completed or not. Voice is used to show relationships between the action and the people affected by it.Mood shows the attitude of the speaker about the verb, whether it is a declaration or an order. Verbs can be affected by person and number to show agreement with the subject.

     

    MAIN VERBS

    The main verb is the most important verb in a sentence; without it, the sentence would not be complete.

     

    AUXILIARY VERBS

    DO‘, ‘BE‘ and ‘HAVE‘ are the English auxiliary verbs used in a negative structure, a question or to show tense.

    DESCRIPTIONS OF ENGLISH AUXILIARY VERBS:

    1/ ‘DO‘, ‘DON’T‘, ‘DOES‘ and ‘DOESN’T‘ are used for questions and negatives in the Present Simple Tense, and ‘DID‘ and ‘DIDN’T‘ are used in the Past Simple Tense.

    2/ ‘BE‘ is used with the Present Participle in Continuous (Progressive) Verbs. It is also used with thePast Participle in the Passive

    3/ ‘HAVE‘ is used with the Past Participle to form the Perfect Aspect.

     

    Subject

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    Definition of subject:The part of a sentence or clause that commonly indicates (a) what it is about, or (b) who or what performs the action (that is, the agent).

    The subject is typically a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun. In a declarative sentence, the subject usually appears before the verb (“Gus never smiles”). In an interrogative sentence, the subject usually follows the first part of a verb (“Does Gus ever smile?”).

    As discussed below, there are exceptions to this traditional definition of a subject.

    How to Identify the Subject:

    “The clearest way of spotting the subject of a sentence is to turn the sentence into a yes-no question (by this we mean a question which can be answered with either ‘yes’ or ‘no’). In English, questions are formed by reversing the order between the subject and the first verb which follows it. Look at the following example:

    He can keep a Tamagotchi alive for more than a week.

    The appropriate question here if we want a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ as an answer is:

    Can he keep a Tamagotchi alive for more than a week?

    Here ‘he’ and ‘can’ have changed places and that means that ‘he’ must be the subject in the first sentence. . . .

    “If there is no suitable verb in the original sentence, then use dummy do, and the subject is the constituent which occurs between do and the original verb.”
    (Kersti Börjars and Kate Burridge, Introducing English Grammar, 2nd ed. Hodder, 2010) 

    Examples and Observations:

    • My master made me this collar. He is a good and smart master, and he made me this collar so that I may speak.”
      (Dug in Up, 2009)

     

    Yoga 101 : The Basics Everyone Needs to Know

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    There are some basic issues that every yoga practitioner needs to know and implement. So here is a simple list of the most frequently asked questions regarding yoga.

    Where should I do yoga?

    Practice in a clean, quiet, well-ventilated, and peaceful place. A sticky mat, carpet, or any other soft but non-skid surface would do. Don’t practice in extreme temperatures (either too hot or too frigid), direct daylight sun, and drafts.

    What should I wear?

    Wear  non-binding/ loose clothes such as tee shirt and sweatpants, tights, or shorts. Bare foot is better so take off your footwear, that includes your socks. Cotton or any other natural fabrics allow the skin to breathe easily. If we can do without our glasses or contact lenses, take them off before practice.

    Is there any specific apparatus?

    Yoga needs refreshingly little in the way of extra apparatus, although many props and aids for practice are sold out there. We’ll need a thin cushion (for relaxation and meditation) and a blanket or shawl to cover our body on cold days. We may also need a canvas strap (to help with postures that are beyond our range), a non-skid mat (to keep the footing solid) and an eye pillow (to darken daytime light during relaxation).

    Continue reading “Yoga 101 : The Basics Everyone Needs to Know”

    How to Integrate Yoga into Our Life Style

    Yoga Class at a Gym Category:Gyms_and_Health_Clubs
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    “To know the truth we have to deepen ourselves and not merely widen the surface” – Sarvepatti Radhakrishnan

    Don’t be fooled by the title. It is not as philosophical as it sounds.

    Yes, lately I’ve been doing yoga. And it really works for me, to relieve stress and get fit.

    These are what I’ve been trying to do to integrate yoga into life style:

    • Taking time to practice every day. I try my best to make it regular. Once I stopped doing yoga for a longer time, things felt wrong. It did occur to me just this week. I stopped practicing a while (3-4 days) and my body seemed to lose its flexibility. And it takes some time to regain the fitness and flexibility level I achieved before. So whether it’s a brief stretching session before going to work or during lunch break, I find it good for my body and mind.
    • Practicing at the same time and place. This could be the hardest challenge if we’re mobile people. Finding a suitable place to practice yoga in an undistracted manner proves to be frustrating.
    • Getting to know the basic preparations. The preparation includes waiting at least 3 hours after eating before practice, wearing loose and comfortable clothes and bare feet. One ought to have a sticky mat, but I myself have not purchased one. So my safe bet is practicing on soft material like mattress, or at least anything that feels comfortable to prevent injuries.
    • Practicing at our comfort level. My body is not an enemy to conquer. I’m not competing against anybody here. Pushing my body too far or too fast could result in injuries. In short, yoga makes us understand our body better. It takes some time especially for those who love competing sports to adapt to yoga practice style.
    • Honoring ourselves. Acknowledge our limitations without accepting them as our fate. Don’t forget, practice is about exploring our possibilities. This may begin with becoming aware of our tendency to chase perfection. Letting go of that will help our practice now and in the years to come.

    Don’t know how to start? This video may be a guidance for you to do some basic yoga poses. Enjoy!

    Health Benefits of Pomegranate

    Pomegranate
    Pomegranate: Fruit that do wonders

    Pomegranate? Our great great great grandparents knew it for its health-boosting effects. You might not know that products from all parts of the pomegranate tree (fruit, bark, flowers, roots, and leaves) are usable to treat medical conditions. A wide range of human races‘  ailments and illnesses are curable with the help of this wonderful fruit.

    What useful substances does pomegranate contain?

    It’s said that there’re a number of phytochemicals which are found to be potentially active in pomegranates. The phytochemicals found in the seeds, bark, and leaves are sterol and terpenoids. You can find alkaloids in its bark and leaves. Fatty acids and triglycerides are found its seed oil. Simple gallyol derivatives are in its leaves. The juice provides organic acids. Flavonols is in the rind,, fruit, bark, and leaves. The juice and rind contain catechin, procyanidins, anthocyanins and anthcyanidins. Punicalagin produced in pomegranates was also shown to possess pharmacological attributes, among other things are anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antigenotoxic properties.

    Continue reading “Health Benefits of Pomegranate”

    A Bitter Sweet Confession: On Shifting to Healthy Life Styles

    Rasuna Epicentrum early in the morning

    Long before I moved to Jakarta, no one would think I lived a healthy life. For months, I spent my waking hours blogging, staring at computer screen, forgetting to lift my heavily cramped butt off the chair (so cramped I couldn’t feel it). To make things even worse, I hardly ever worked out. I stayed up late almost every single day. But maybe the best (or worst?) thing happened to me was I didn’t gain weight after living the sedentary life style.

    The impact of living on my own upon my mindset

    But that was the past. Soon I made up my mind, particularly after getting a new job and living in the center of chaos like Jakarta, this unhealthy life style had to be ended.

    Well, I should say I always had a streak of peculiar appetite from the very beginning. I don’t usually drink any liquid other than fresh water. I hate sweets, syrup, or similar things with too bright a color. I got mad every time my mom used a plastic container or bag to hold hot soup or liquid. I felt like I was haunted by the dioxin -the carconogenic chemical freed by the heat from plastic surface.

    Another thing pushed me to adopt a new healthier life style would be my dad’s health history. He’s developed diabetes type 2, which requires him to eat a lot of drugs on a daily basis. I’m not anti drugs, anti medication or a  doctor hater either but the fact that my dad must take pills every day to treat the insulin disorder is overwhelming.

    So I found out moving out of my parents’ house was my best opportunity to change my entire life style. I’m pretty much more financially able now so I don’t have to depend on my parents when it comes to picking the menus. I can eat and do anything I want here. But I always remind myself: “Don’t binge”.  I actually can eat lots of junk foods if I want to, but I don’t.

    So why don’t I? Perhaps the best answer to the question is that my pragmatic way of thinking. I’m living alone here, which translates to having no relatives here in the cRapital to take care of me. So nobody but I must hold responsibility for every decision I make. Making unwise decisions will make me regret, and vice versa. Continue reading “A Bitter Sweet Confession: On Shifting to Healthy Life Styles”

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